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 IP networks

 

IP networks

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the most computer communication protocol today. It is the base protocol used for Internet communication such as e-mail, web and multimedia. One of the reasons for its popularity is its scalability. In other words, it works as well in very small installations as it does in very large ones and is supported by an increasingly wide range of high performance, low-cost and industry-proven equipment and technologies.

Based on IP protocol, Axis network video products have the advantage of being able to directly and seamlessly connect to a whole range of wired and wireless Ethernet devices.

Ethernet

In today’s offices, computers are most likely to be using TCP/IP connected via an Ethernet network. Ethernet gives a fast network at a reasonable cost. Most modern computers are supplied with an integrated Ethernet interface or can easily accommodate an Ethernet network interface card (NIC). 

10 Mbit/s (10 Mbps) Ethernet

This standard is rarely used in production networks today due to its low capacity, and has been replaced by 100 Mbit/s Ethernet since the late 90s. The most common topology used for 10 Mbit/s Ethernet was called 10BASE-T; it uses 4 wires (two twisted pairs) on a cat-3 or cat-5 cable. A hub or switch sits in the center and has a port for each node. The same configuration is used for Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet.

Fast Ethernet (100 Mbit/s)

Supporting data transfer rates of up to 100 Mbit/s, Fast Ethernet is the most common Ethernet type used in computer networks today. The main standard is called 100BASE-T. Although newer and faster than 10 Mbit Ethernet, in all other respects it is the same. The 100BASE-T standard can be subdivided into:

  • 100BASE-TX: Uses twisted pair copper cabling (cat-5).

  • 100BASE-FX: 100 Mbit/s Ethernet over optical fiber.
    Note: most 100 Mbit network switches support both 10 and 100 Mbit to ensure backward compatibility (commonly called 10/100 Network switch).

Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbit/s)

This is the current standard that is being endorsed for desktop computers by networking equipment vendors. The most common use today is however for backbones in between network servers and network switches. 1000 Mbit/s is widely used and it can be subdivided into:

  • 1000BASE-T: 1 Gbit/s over cat-5e or cat-6 copper cabling.

  • 1000BASE-SX: 1 Gbit/s over multi-mode fiber (up to 550m).

  • 1000BASE-LX: 1 Gbit/s over multi-mode fiber (up to 550m). Optimized for longer distances (up to 10km) over single-mode fiber. 

  • 1000BASE-LH: 1 Gbit/s over single-mode fiber (up to 100km). A long-distance solution.

10 Gigabit Ethernet (10,000 Mbit/s)

This is viewed as the new choice for backbone in enterprise networks. The 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard uses seven different media types for LAN, WAN and MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). It is currently specified by a supplementary standard, IEEE 802.3ae, and will be incorporated into a future revision of the IEEE 802.3 standard.

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